Métricas contables como factores críticos del desempeño financiero: Evidencia de fusiones y adquisiciones en México.

Autores/as

  • Alma Berenice Méndez Sáenz UANL
  • Sergio Raúl Hinojosa Treviño UANL

Resumen

Abstract. Mergers and acquisitions operationes in Mexico has been increasing in recent years. Literature´s opinion is divided among results on financial performance after the acquisition, there is evidence of gains and losses depending on several characteristics of the merger like the way of payment, the operation and financial synergies, and the macroeconomic scenario. The risk-return relationship has been estimated efficiently by the CAPM from Sharpe (1964). The model assumes mean-variance efficiency in market equilibrium under uncertainty, considering that all systematic risk is measured by the model’s beta. Literature supports that accounting and market metrics are proper measuring tools for financial performance analysis. Synergies are the main motive for acquisitions; one way of analysis is by comparing the explicatory power of accounting metrics before and after the acquisition process related with the financial performance of the acquiring firm. Accounting metrics consider fundamental variables related with the firm’s financial statements data and
explain in an efficient manner, any change on the financial performance after the merger process. For acquiring firms quoting on the Bolsa Mexicana de Valores that had an approved acquisition by the Comisión Federal de Competencia Económica during 2010 and 2011, the accounting metrics ROA and ROE using size and debt as proxy variables, show significant positive correlation with the market capitalization.

Keywords: accounting metrics, financial performance, mergers and acquisitions, return, risk.

JEL: G34, G30 & M40.

Resumen. Las operaciones de fusiones y adquisiciones han tenido un crecimiento en México en los últimos años. La literatura divide sus opiniones respecto a las ganancias que representa la adquisición para el adquiriente, en función de diversas características de la operación como el método de pago, las sinergias operativas y financieras, así como las circunstancias macroeconómicas. La relación riesgo-rendimiento de los activos se ha estimado de manera eficiente por el CAPM de Sharpe (1964). El modelo asume una eficiencia en media-varianza en condiciones de equilibrio bajo incertidumbre, y considera que
todo el riesgo sistemático es medido por el coeficiente beta del modelo. La evidencia empírica sugiere que las métricas contables y de mercado son herramientas apropiadas para medir y analizar el desempeño financiero de las organizaciones. Las sinergias son el principal motivo para llevar a cabo procesos de adquisición; una manera de medirlas es comparar el poder explicativo de las métricas contables antes y después de la operación de adquisición en relación al desempeño financiero de la emisora adquiriente. Las métricas contables se componen de variables fundamentales relacionadas con la información de los
estados financieros de la empresa y explican de manera eficiente, cualquier cambio en el desempeño financiero después de una adquisición de empresa. Los resultados de la presente investigación demuestran que para aquellas emisoras cotizan en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores y que tuvieron alguna adquisición aprobada por la Comisión Federal de Competencia Económica durante 2010 y 2011, demuestran que las métricas contables ROA y ROE apoyándose en variables proxy de tamaño y deuda son estadísticamente significativas y favorables en la comparación antes y después de la operación de adquisición
en relación al índice de capitalización de empresas.

Palabras clave: desempeño financiero, fusiones y adquisiciones, métricas contables, rendimiento, riesgo.

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Publicado

2018-02-12

Cómo citar

Méndez Sáenz, A. B., & Hinojosa Treviño, S. R. (2018). Métricas contables como factores críticos del desempeño financiero: Evidencia de fusiones y adquisiciones en México. Innovaciones De Negocios, 12(23). Recuperado a partir de https://revistainnovaciones.uanl.mx/index.php/revin/article/view/85